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? ????? ????? ????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ? ????? ???????? ????????? ???? ??????????? ????. ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? XIX ???? ? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????, ????????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ????????????? ? ????????????????????? ????????????; ?????????? ????? ???? ???????? ??????????, ??????????? ????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???????; ? ????? ??????, ? ?????? XX ???? ??? ???????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????????.

? 1754 ???? ????????? ??????????????? ???????? ????? – ?????, ?? ??????? ????????? ??????? ????????. ???-???????? ???????? ????? ????? ???? ??????? ? 1792 ????, ????? ????????? ????????? ???????????, ???????????? ? ???? ?? ????-?????, ?????? ??????????? ???? ???????????? ? ???????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????????? (?????????????? ???? ???? ????????, ??? ???? ????? ???-???????? ???????? ????? ???????? ?????? ? 1817 ????).

? 1848 ???? 82 ?????????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????? ???????? ?????? (Chicago Board of Trade), ??????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ???????????????????? ????? ????. 1868 ??? – ??? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ?? ????????, ??????? ????? ????????????????? ? ?????????????????? ???????? ????? (Mid-American Commodity exchange), ????????? ? ????????? ???????? ???????.

?????? ??????, ???????? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ???????? XIX ???? ? ??? ??? ????? ????? ?????. ? 1870 ???? ????????? ???-???????? ????? ?????? ? ?????????? (New-York Cotton, Citrus and Petroleum Exchange), ? 1872 ???? - ???-???????? ???????????? ????? (New-York Mercantile Exchange), ? 1882 ???? – ????? ????, ?????? ? ????? (Coffee, Sugar & Cocoa Exchange), ? 1933 ???? – ???????? ????? ???-????? (Commodity Exchange of New-York).

????????? ??? ? ???? ???????? ???????? ????? ?? ???????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???????, ?? ? ????????? ???? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?? ????? ?????? – ??????????? ????????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????, ?????? ? ???-????????? ????, ? ????? ????????, ????? ? ??? ?????? ????????????? ?????.