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??????? ? ???????? ???????

??? ????????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????????, ?? ????????? ?? ?????? ????????????, ? ??????????, ???????????? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????.

? ?????????? ???????? (FC; fixed cost ????.) ????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ??????, ??????????, ????????????, ???????????????-?????????????? ???????, ???????? ?????, ????????? ???? ???????. ??????? ????????, ??? ? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????. ? ?????????? (VC; variable cost ????.) ???????, ??? ???????, ??????? ?? ?????, ?????????, ??????? ????.

????? ???????, ????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????? ????? ???? ???????????? ??? ????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ??????:

??? STC{Q) ????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????? Q ?????? ?????????; FC ?????????? ???????; VC(Q) ?????????? ??????? ?? ???????????? Q ?????? ?????????.

?? ???. 8.5,? ???????????? ?????? STC, VC ? FC ??? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????. ??? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????? (STC) ????? ????????????, ??????????? ???, ??? ???????? ?? ???. 8.3,6, ? ????? FC ?? ??? ??????? ????????????? ????? ?0 ?? ???. 8.3,6. ????? ???????, ????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????? ???. 8.5 ???????????? ???????? ??? ?????? STC, ????? ?????????? ?????? ????????, ???????????? ???? ??????? ? ????? FC, ? ????? ?????????? ?????? ????????, ???????????? ????? ?????? FC. ? ?????? ?????? STC. ?????? ????? ?????? STC ????? ???????? ? ?????, ????? ????????????? ???????????? ????? FC ? VC. ???????, ??? ???????????? ?????? VC ????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????.

??? ??????????? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????, ?? ? ??????????, ??????????????? ?? ??????? ? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????????, ???, ?????, ??????? (????????) ???????.

??????? ??????? ???? ??????? ?? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ???????:

??? SATC ????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ??? ???????????? Q ?????? ?????????; AFC ??????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ???????????? Q ?????? ?????????; SAVC ??????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ??? ???????????? Q ?????? ?????????.

?????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??????. ????????? FC = const, a AFC = FC/Q, ?? AFC Q = FC = const. ?????????????, ?????? AFC ????? ??? ????????? (???. 8.5). ????? ?????? ???????, ??? ????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ????? ?????????? ?????????. ??? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ? ???????? ?? ????????? ? ????.

(???. 8.5). ?????????????, ??????? ??????? ????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ????????????:

???????, ??? ??????? ??????? ????? ? ??????? ?????????? ???????????, ????? ??????????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??????????. ? ?????? ? ? ? ?? ???. 8.5 ????, ??????????? ?? ?????? ?????????, ????????? ? ???????????? ? ?????? STC ? VC ??????????????. ??????? ?????? SMC ?????????? ?????? SAVC ? SATC ? ?????? ? ? ? ??????????????.

?????? ????, ??? ? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????????? ???????.

???????????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ????????? (???. 8.5).

???? SATC ??? SAVC ???????, ?.?. dSATC/dQ < 0 ??? dSAVC/dQ < 0, ?????????? ??????? ???? ???????, SMC < SATC ??? SMC < SAVC (??????? ?????? SATC ? SAVC ????? ? ? ?).

???? SATC ??? SAVC ??????????, ?.?. dSATC/dQ > ? ??? dSAVC/dQ > 0, ?????????? ??????? ???? ???????, SMC > > SATC ??? SMC > SAVC (??????? ?????? SATC ? SAVC ?????? ? ? ?).

SATC ? SAVC ????????? ????????, ?.?. dSATC/dQ - ? ??? dSAVC/dQ = ?, ????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ???????, SMC = SATC ??? SMC = SAVC (????? ? ? ?).

SAVC ????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???????, ??? SATC, ????????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ????????? ???? ??? ???????, ????? ?????????????? ???????? AFC ????????????? ?????? SAVC (????? ? ????? ????? ????? ?1).